Royal Commission into the Casino Operator and Licence



Bergin Inquiry

The inquiry under section 143 of the Casino Control Act 1992 (NSW) undertaken by the Hon. Patricia Bergin, AO, SC to look into whether Crown Sydney was suitable to hold a casino licence in New South Wales.

Bonus Jackpots

A Crown Melbourne promotional scheme offering dining, hotel accommodation and parking benefits to members.


The amount of money or funds a player credits to an electronic gaming machine, fully-automated table game or semi-automated table game, or exchanges for chips or chip purchase vouchers for play on a table game at the Melbourne Casino.


The amount of money or funds a player has returned to them on a gambling product at the Melbourne Casino.


A secure area of the Melbourne Casino in which financial transactions, including exchanging cash or chips for play, are conducted in relation to the casino’s gaming operations.

carded and uncarded customers

Customers gambling at the Melbourne Casino using a Crown loyalty card or without a card. Commonly referred to as ‘carded play’ and ‘uncarded play’, and ‘carded’ and ‘uncarded’ customers.

Casino Agreement

An agreement between Crown Melbourne (then Crown Casino Ltd) and the regulator (then the Victorian Casino Control Authority) dated 21 September 1993, incorporating all variations as at the date of this Report (unless the context requires otherwise).

casino licence

A licence granted under part 2 of the Casino Control Act 1991 (Vic) that allows the licence holder to operate a casino.

casino licensee

The holder of a licence granted under part 2 of the Casino Control Act 1991 (Vic). See also casino operator.

casino operator

The casino licensee who operates the casino.

Commission Based Player

A person who participates in an approved premium player arrangement or an approved junket. The person must meet the casino regulator's requirements.

Crown Australian Resorts

Crown Melbourne, Crown Perth and Crown Sydney integrated casino resorts.

Crown Melbourne

Crown Melbourne Limited. The holder of the Melbourne casino licence and the casino operator.

Previously known as Crown Casino Ltd, Crown Limited, Haliboba Pty Ltd and Crown Melbourne Limited.

Crown Melbourne is a wholly owned subsidiary of Crown Resorts.

See Appendix E for the corporate history of the Crown group.

Crown Melbourne Contracts

In the context of this Commission, the documents referred to in section 25(1)(c) of the Casino Control Act 1991 (Vic). They are:

  • a suite of commercial agreements concerning the operation of the Melbourne Casino Complex
  • any other agreements between Crown Melbourne and the State, or a body representing the State, that impose obligations on the casino operator in relation to gaming.

Crown Resorts

Crown Resorts Limited. An ASX-listed, Australian public company and Crown Melbourne’s ultimate holding company.

See Appendix E for the corporate history of the Crown group.

cuckoo smurfing

A method of money laundering criminals use to move funds across borders and make money generated by their illegal activities appear to have come from a legitimate source. It usually occurs when one or more third parties intercepts legitimate payments and replaces them with deposits of illicit funds. See Chapter 6 for a detailed explanation.

electronic gaming machine

A device for playing a game of chance or a game that involves chance and skill that can be wholly or partly electronic. Players make bets on the machine with winnings returned as credits.

front money

The amount of money or funds a junket organiser or promoter lodges with the casino operator before the junket player starts playing at the casino as part of the junket.

fully-automated table game

Table games that do not require a dealer for play.


Gambling requires a player to risk losing something of value (usually money) for the chance of winning more. Gambling outcomes may depend on correctly predicting an uncertain outcome (such as a particular horse coming first in a race) or luck (such as a winning combination of symbols on an electronic gaming machine).

Gambling Code

Also called a Responsible Gambling Code of Conduct. Each gambling industry participant needs to have a Gambling Code under the Gambling Regulation Act 2003 (Vic), and Crown Melbourne must have one under the Casino Control Act 1991 (Vic). Gambling Codes must meet certain standards and requirements.


A formalised expression of play. Games can come in many different types and genres, such as board games or electronic/digital games played via a computer or smartphone.

Gross Gaming Revenue

The total amount a casino operator receives through gaming, less the amount paid out as winnings. See Chapters 11 and 12 for a detailed explanation.

high roller

A person who gambles very large amounts of money in a casino through a Commission Based Player arrangement.

holding company

A company that holds majority voting rights or shares in other companies. See also subsidiary and wholly owned subsidiary.

internal control statement

The approved and documented system of internal controls and administrative and accounting procedures for Crown Melbourne.


An arrangement whereby a person, or a group of people, is introduced to a casino operator by a junket organiser or promoter, who receives a commission based on the turnover of the junket players play in a casino. See Chapter 7 for a detailed explanation.

Management Agreement

An agreement between Crown Melbourne (then Crown Casino Ltd) and the State of Victoria dated 20 September 1993, a copy of which is set out in schedule 1 of the Casino (Management Agreement) Act 1993, as varied by ten Deeds of Variation, copies of which are set out in schedules 2 to 11 of that Act (unless the context requires otherwise).

Melbourne Casino

The casino operated in Melbourne by Crown Melbourne, including the areas in which money counting, surveillance, storage and other activities related to the conduct and playing of games are carried on.

Melbourne Casino Complex

The Melbourne Casino and connected facilities at the Crown Melbourne site on Southbank. It includes hotels, restaurants, bars and other non-gaming amenities.

money laundering

The act of disguising or legitimising the origins of money that is used in or derived from crime. See Chapter 6 for a detailed explanation.

net loss

When the total amount outlaid by a player exceeds winnings or returns from gambling.

Observable Signs

Seen or reported behaviours or patterns of behaviours which are potential indicators that a person may be experiencing problems with their gambling behaviours.


A practice that enables the international transfer of value without actually transferring money. This is possible because the practice involves a financial credit and debit (offsetting) relationship between two or more entities operating in different countries.

patron account

A bank account maintained by Crown into which patrons can deposit money.

Play Safe Limits

Crown Melbourne’s voluntary money and time limit setting program. It allows Crown Resorts’ loyalty program members to set money and time limits for their fully-automated table game play.

pre-commitment system

A system that involves a gambler setting a loss limit and a time limit before they commence gambling. This can be mandatory or voluntary.

premium player arrangement

An arrangement whereby a casino operator agrees to pay a patron of the casino a commission based on the patron’s play. The commission could be based on the patron’s turnover or some other aspect of their play.

problem gambler

A person whose gambling has negative consequences. They may often spend more than their limit, gamble to win money back and feel stressed about their gambling.

problem gambling

Gambling characterised by difficulties in limiting money and/or time spent gambling, which leads to adverse consequences for the person gambling and often for others in the community.


The regulator of the casino operator has had a number of different names since it was first established. In this Report, the term ‘regulator’ is used instead of the regulator’s name, unless the name is needed for clarity.

Responsible Gaming Register

The electronic database maintained by Crown Melbourne into which gaming staff log activities or incidents relating to the Responsible Service of Gaming.

risk appetite

The boundaries for risk an organisation sets and is willing to accept in pursuit of strategic objectives.

risk management plan/framework

The totality of policies, processes and risk management tools used by an organisation to manage the variety of risks it faces.

root cause analysis

Any systematic process that identifies the cause of an undesired event.

Self-Exclusion Program

A program Crown Melbourne offers to customers wanting to voluntarily ban themselves from gaming areas for a period of at least 12 months.

spin rate

The interval between spins on an electronic gaming machine.


The practice of deliberately splitting what could be a single cash transaction into several smaller transactions, each of which is less than $10,000 individually but which collectively equal or exceed $10,000. The purpose of structuring to is avoid authorities detecting large cash deposits.


A company that is more than 50 per cent owned and controlled by another company or firm.


An electronic customer relationship management system used by Crown Melbourne and Crown Perth.

table game

A game played on a table or similar surface, typically with counters, balls or other playing pieces. In the context of a casino, a game played at a table, as opposed to an electronic gaming machine, fully-automated table game or semi-automated table game.


The amount wagered. It is all the money bet before any winnings are paid out or losses incurred. It does not include any additional charges that may also be paid at the point of purchase.


An unincorporated association or entity consisting of a group of individuals with a common interest without a legally recognised structure.

VIP International

The business unit of Crown Resorts focused on marketing Crown’s casinos to overseas gamblers.

wholly owned subsidiary

A subsidiary company all of whose shares are owned by a holding company.


The voluntary pre-commitment system that is mandatory under the Gambling Regulation Act 2003 (Vic) for all electronic gaming machines at all gaming venues in Victoria, including the Melbourne Casino. The system allows patrons to pre-set money and/or time limits for gambling on electronic gaming machines.

Reviewed 25 October 2021